Determination of Independence of Directors

The Board has determined that to be considered independent, a Director may not have a direct or indirect material relationship with the Company. A material relationship is one which impairs or inhibits, or has the potential to impair or inhibit, a Director’s exercise of critical and disinterested judgment on behalf of the Company and its stockholders.

In making its assessment of independence, the Board:

  • Considers any and all material relationships not merely from the standpoint of the Director, but also from that of persons or organizations with which the Director has or has had an affiliation, or those relationships which may be material, including commercial, industrial, banking, consulting, legal, accounting, charitable and familial relationships, among others;
  • The Board also considers whether a Director was an employee of the Company within the last three years;
  • The Board consults with the Company’s counsel to ensure that the Board’s determinations are consistent with all relevant securities and other laws and regulations regarding the definition of “independent” Director, including those set forth in pertinent listing standards of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) as in effect from time to time.

The NYSE’s listing standards require that all listed companies have a majority of independent directors. For a director to be “independent” under the NYSE listing standards, the board of directors of a listed company must affirmatively determine that the director has no material relationship with the company, or its subsidiaries or affiliates, either directly or as a partner, stockholder or officer of an organization that has a relationship with the company or its subsidiaries or affiliates. In accordance with the NYSE listing standards, the Board has affirmatively determined that each of the Board’s current Directors and nominees for Director, other than Mr. Lichtenstein and Ms. Drake, have no material relationships with the Company, either directly or as a partner, stockholder or officer of an organization that has a relationship with the Company and are “independent” under the NYSE listing standards.